Haemophilus influenzaetypeb (Hib) causes acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in children, with a mortality rate of about 3-6 % of the affected patients. ABM can lead to death during a period of hours to several days and, hence, rapid and earlydetection of the infection is crucial. Aptamers, the short single-stranded DNA or RNA with high affinity to target molecules, are selected by a high-flux screening technique known as in vitro screening and systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment technology (SELEX). In this study, whole-cellSELEX was applied for the selection of target-specificaptamers with high affinity to Hib. ssDNA aptamers prepared by lambda exonuclease were incubated with the target cells (Hib). The aptameric binding rate to Hib was characterized for binding affinity after seven SELEX rounds by flow cytometry. The aptamers with higher binding affinity were cloned. Four of 68 aptamer clones were selected for sequencing. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the high-affinity aptamer clones 45 and 63 were 47.10 and 28.46 pM, respectively. Theseaptamers did not bind to other bacterial species, including the seven meningitis-causing bacteria. They showed distinct affinity to various H. influenzae strains only. These aptamers showed the highest affinity to Hib and the lowest affinity to H.influenzaetype c and to other meningitis-causing bacteria. Clone 63 could detect Hib in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples at 60 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. The results indicate applicability of the aptamers for rapid and early detectionof infections brought about by Hib.